29 new resources

Added 2 days ago

John Edson, Garen Kouyoumjian, Benedict Sheppard (2017)

Ten principles of design thinking that deliver business value

As design thinking nears its 50th birthday, many companies still struggle to realize value from design. Those that succeed often follow ten best practices.

Added 2 days ago

Fereidoon Shams, Reza Bagheriasl, Amir Mahjoorian, Maziar Mobasheri, Faezeh Hoseini, Delaram Golpayegani (2017)

Towards a National Enterprise Architecture Framework in Iran

National Enterprise Architecture (EA) is regarded as a catalyst for achieving e-government goals and many countries have given priority to it in developing their e-government plans. Designing a national EA framework which fits the government’s specific needs facilitates EA planning and implementation for public agencies and boosts the chance of EA success. In this paper, we introduce Iran’s national EA framework (INEAF). The INEAF is designed in order to improve interoperability and deal with EA challenges in Iranian agencies.

Added 2 days ago

Nestori Syynimaa (2017)

The Quest for Underpinning Theory of Enterprise Architecture - General Systems Theory

Enterprise architecture originates from the 1980’s. It emerged among ICT practitioners to solve complex problems related to information systems. Currently EA is also utilised to solve business problems, although the focus is still in ICT and its alignment with business. EA can be defined as a description of the current and future states of the enterprise, and as a change between these states to meet stakeholder’s goals. Despite its popularity and 30 years of age, the literature review conducted on top information and management science journals revealed that EA is still lacking the sound theoretical foundation. In this conceptual paper, we propose General Systems Theory (GST) for underpinning theory of EA. GST allows us to see enterprises as systems of systems consisting of, for instance, social organisations, humans, information systems and computers. This explains why EA can be used to describe the enterprise and its components, and how to control them to execute the managed change. Implications to science and practice, and some directions for future research are also provided.

Added 2 days ago

Torben Tambo (2017)

Enterprise Architecture beyond the Enterprise - Extended Enterprise Architecture Revisited

As the most enterprises are relying on relations to other enterprises, it is relevant to consider enterprise architecture for inter-organisational relations particularly those relations involving technology. This has been conceptualised as Extended Enterprise Architecture, and a systematic review of this discipline is the topic of this paper. This paper is taking a point of departure in general theories of business-to-business relationships along with inter-organisational information systems, interoperability and business ecosystems. The general theories are applied to the Extended Enterprise Architecture to emphasize paradoxes, problems and potentials in extending EA across organisational boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of Extended Enterprise Architecture (EEA) theoretically and empirically to identify viability of Enterprise Architecture (EA) initiatives spanning across organisational boundaries. A case is presented of an enterprise engaging in technology-based business process integration that in turn is explicated as enterprise architecture initiatives with both more and less powerful partners. This paper underlines the necessity to be able to have EA spanning initiatives across multiple enterprises, but a range of problems is illuminated related to (lack of) precision, imbalance, heterogeneity, transformation, temporality, and (operational) maturity. The concept of EEA is seemingly vague, however this paper calls for a strengthen emphasis on redefining general architectural frameworks to embrace EEA in order to handle typical and modern forms of organisational designs relying on virtual and cross-company as cornerstones.

Added 2 days ago

Melanie Langermeier, Bernhard Bauer (2017)

Generic EA Analysis Framework for the Definition and Automatic Execution of Analyses

Analysis is an essential part in the Enterprise Architecture Management lifecycle. An in-depth consideration of the architecture obtains its strengths and weaknesses. This provides a sound foundation for the future evolution of the architecture as well as for decision-making regarding new projects. Current literature provides a large number of different analysis approaches, targeting different goals and utilizing different techniques. To provide a common interface to analysis activities we studied the corresponding literature in previous research. Based on these results we develop a language for the definition of EA analyses as well as an execution environment for their evaluation. To cope with the high variety of meta models in the EA domain, the framework provides a uniform and tool independent access to analysis activities. Additionally it can be used to provide an EA analysis library, where the architect is able to select predefined analyses according to his specific requirements.

Added 2 days ago

Siyanda Nkundla-Mgudlwa, Jan C. Mentz (2017)

A Synthesis of Enterprise Architecture Effectiveness Constructs

Companies throughout the world use Enterprise Architecture (EA) because of benefits such as the alignment of business to Information Technology (IT), centralisation of decision making and cost reductions due to standardisation of business processes and business systems. Even though EA offers organisational benefits, EA projects are reported as being costly, time consuming and require tremendous effort. Companies therefore seek to ascertain ways to measure the effectiveness of EA implementation because of the money and time being spent on EA projects. EA Effectiveness refers to the degree in which EA helps to achieve the collective goals of the organisation and its measurement depends on a list of constructs that can be used to measure the effectiveness of EA implementation. Currently, there exist no comprehensive list of constructs that are suitable to measure the effectiveness of EA implementation. The paper reports on the results of a study that explored the development of a compreh ensive list of constructs suitable for measuring the effectiveness of EA implementation. The artefact developed in this research study is called Enterprise Architecture Effectiveness Constructs (EAEC). The EAEC consists of 6 constructs namely: - alignment

Added 3 days ago

Mahsa Razavi, Fereidoon Shams, Kambiz Badie (2011)

An AHP-based approach toward enterprise architecture analysis based on enterprise architecture quality attributes

Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a discipline that manages large amount of models and information about different aspects of the enterprise, can support decision making on enterprise-wide issues. In order to provide such support, EA information should be amenable to analysis of various utilities and quality attributes. In this regard, we have proposed the idea of characterizing and using enterprise architecture quality attributes. And this paper provides a quantitative AHP-based method toward expert-based EA analysis. Our method proposes a step-by-step process of assessing quality attribute achievement of different scenarios using AHP. By this method, most suitable EA scenarios are selected according to prioritized enterprise utilities and this selection has an important affect on decision making in enterprises. The proposed method also introduces a data structure that contains required information about quality attribute achievement of different EA scenarios in enterprises. The stored asset can be used for further decision making and progress assessment in future. Sensitivity analysis is also part of the process to identify sensitive points in the decision process. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using a practical case study.

Added 3 days ago

Ali Fatolahi, Fereidoon Shams (2006)

An investigation into applying UML to the Zachman framework

The Zachman framework is considered to be the most referenced framework for the purpose of enterprise architecture. It is commonplace to compare other frameworks with this basic one in order to show correctness and usability of those frameworks. However, this is more than a fashion, the Zachman framework is actually the best one. Despite of its popularity, the Zachman framework could be a challengeable one in practical situations because there are not enough well-known methods and tools covering all of its aspects. Three major challenges in using this framework, are discussed in this article. These challenges are lack of a methodology, a well-defined repository and a popular modeling notation. Focus of this article is on solving the last problem with the help of notations in UML (Unified Modeling Language) and UML Business Profile. At the first glance the topic seems to be already researched by others, but there are some major distinctions between this work and the others', which make it a unique one. Most of the other work tried to cover the framework using multiple class diagrams stereotyped in different ways. This work tries to cover the Zachman framework using all of the UML features, especially those, which are convenient in common modeling tools as well as ignoring unfamiliar symobls as it is used by some authors. A case study is used upon which we show how to apply the selected notation on a sample enterprise to develop cells in second and third rows of the framework. Models are tested to consider if they are supporting Zachman rules governing the framework. Furthermore, in order to see if they could be convincing enough, a statistical study is employed. Although results of these tests are relatively acceptable, the problem of inventing new modeling notations is mentioned as an open problem.

Added 3 days ago

Daniel Alsén, Mark Patel, Jason Shangkuan (2017)

The future of connectivity: Enabling the Internet of Things

With new connectivity technologies unlocking opportunities along the IoT value chain, companies must create detailed plans to harness their potential.

Added 6 days ago

Shawn Wasserman (2017)

What is the Digital Twin and Why Should Simulation and IoT Experts Care?

Whether you call it the Digital Twin or hybrid twin, the concept of copying your physical assets in the digital world is sweeping the computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Internet of Things (IoT) industries. In a panel of experts at the Analysis, Simulation and Whether you call it the Digital Twin or hybrid twin, the concept of copying your physical assets in the digital world is sweeping the computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Internet of Things (IoT) industries. In a panel of experts at the Analysis, Simulation and Systems Engineering Software Summit (ASSESS) Congress, engineers debated the definition of the Digital Twin as well as the role simulation and IoT will play in its inevitable expansion.

Added 6 days ago

Sondre Lauvrak, Vetle Kirkesola Michaelsen, Dag H Olsen (2017)

Benefits and challenges with Enterprise Architecture: a case study of the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration

Enterprise Architecture is seen as instrumental to drive the digital transformation in enterprises. It is also important to achieve the benefits from innovative new business models and technologies. Many organisations have therefore undertaken extensive efforts to implement Enterprise Architecture (EA). It is, however, a challenging task to implement enterprise architecture in an organisation. There is also very limited research on this issue related to the public sector. This study explores the implementation of enterprise architecture (EA) in the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration - NAV. While the study revealed that NAV had not defined any clear benefits, we found 12 perceived potential benefits. We also uncovered 16 challenges that impeded the EA implementation.

Added 13 days ago

Mark Samuels (2017)

Digital transformation: Why the future is looking bright for CIOs

CIO Strategies: Digital transformation projects and the need to spread the use of technology throughout organisations is good news for tech chiefs.

Added 14 days ago

Yan Lu, Feng Ju (2017)

Smart Manufacturing Systems based on Cyber-physical Manufacturing Services (CPMS)

Future manufacturing is becoming “smart” - capable of agilely adapting to a wide variety of changing conditions. This requires production plants, supply chains and logistic systems to be flexible in design and reconfigurable “on the fly” to respond quickly to customer needs, production uncertainties, and market changes. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) provides a promising platform to achieve such manufacturing agility. It has proven effective for business process adaptation. When combined with the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology and the concept of cyber-physical production systems, it is expected to similarly revolutionize real-time manufacturing systems. This paper proposes a new concept of cyber-physical manufacturing services (CPMS) for service-oriented smart manufacturing systems. In addition, we propose a modeling framework that provides appropriate conceptual models for developing and describing CPMS and enabling their composition. Specifically, the modeling framework separates service provision models from service request models and proposes the use of standardized functional taxonomies and a reference ontology to facilitate the mediation between service requests and service consumptions. A 3D-printing use case serves as an example implementation of an SOA-based smart manufacturing system based on our proposed modeling framework.

Added 21 days ago

Seyran Ghahramany Dehbokry (2017)

Business architecture reference model (BARM) for small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

PhD thesis. As Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) compete in a dynamic ecosystem of firms, their businesses continuously face the challenge of creating sustained value by managing socio-technical resources/capabilities and aligning them with changing market needs. Accelerating technological changes, rapidly changing market demands and growing globalized collaborative ecosystem of organisations, in addition to SMEs’ inherent resource limitations and constraints, underscore the SMEs’ critical need for strategic developments and execution. The SME’s combined internal and external challenges and requirements call for the support of a Business Architecture (BA) – a strategic management tool to facilitate the development and configuration of socio-technical resources/capabilities and capitalise on the ecosystem and market opportunities. Using the Design Science methodology this research aims to develop and evaluate a simple but holistically comprehensive Business Architecture (BA) that shall ideally help SMEs implement entrepreneurial practices that have the capacity to articulate and execute their business strategies to align with the changing environments. In particular using extensive exploratory literature review I identify underlying drivers of SME requirements for a BA practice. Then I explicate the research problem and BA practice requirements using a semi-structured interview of SME managers/executives and E/BA experts. Derived from identified SMEs’ internal and external strategic requirements, I develop the conceptual model for the SMEs’ Business Architecture Reference Model (BARM) by integrating diverse but interrelated disciplines including

Added 23 days ago

Martin Geissdoerfer, Paulo Savaget, Steve Evans (2017)

The Cambridge Business Model Innovation Process

Organisations increasingly understand that meeting their sustainability ambitions does not only require new technologies, but innovation on the business model level. To facilitate the design of more sustainable business models, a range of new tools and techniques have been developed. While this resulted in the design of a wide range of promising business models, only very few are successfully implemented. The Cambridge Business Model Innovation Process is a framework developed to guide organisations’ business model innovation efforts and map the necessary activities and potential challenges. In this paper, we introduce the framework and present an exploratory attempt of applying it to a social start-up. The preliminary result of this experience led us to build a comprehensive research agenda that aims at developing tools and processes to help organisations in bridging the design-implementation gap in sustainable business model innovation.

Added 23 days ago

Sergejs Groskovs (2016)

Business Model Innovation: From Understanding the Process to Tracking the Change

This doctoral dissertation (PhD thesis) builds a conceptual understanding of the process of business model innovation in established firms and proceeds to address the question of how changes in the business model can be tracked. In the pragmatist scientific tradition, each of the four papers included is warranted by a practical problem and aims to offer useful guidance to managers. The first paper reviews the classic and more recent literature and conceptualizes a process of business model innovation. The problem it aims to tackle is how to innovate the firm’s business model in response to changes in the business environment and what to be aware of in the process. The business model innovation process is argued to consist of two iterative cycles: search and change. The paper further identifies the forces that can influence the successful outcome of each of the cycles. For business model search, these drivers include the ability to understand the environment, the presence of entrepreneurial people, the commitment of senior management, and the dedication of resources and funding. For business model change, some of the critical factors are the commitment of the firm’s senior management, the involvement of the firm’s middle management and employees, the change implementation process, and the introduction of new technology. The second paper develops a technique to capture business model changes from public sources and to facilitate further analysis of these data. The paper addresses the researcher’s practical problem of how to collect secondary data on changes in a firm’s business model and proposes certain approaches to enable the analytical process. This paper responds to the scarcity of methodological guidance for qualitative data analysis in the business models literature and in case studies in general. The paper further provides a review of contemporary approaches to studying business model change and argues for the sufficiency of secondary data to study patterns of business model change in public firms. The technique can also be of use in iv generating valuable insights for practical strategy planning by offering a way to track strategic moves and longer-term development trajectories of competition, industry peers and acquisition targets. The third paper identifies three strategic directions of business model change that management can consider when planning for growth. The case study of a rapidly growing new technology-based firm in a mature industry demonstrates that a firm can follow one of the three trajectories: (i) enhancing the core business model, (ii) “unlocking the nucleus” inside the core business model, or (iii) expanding beyond the core business model. The first trajectory assumes adding complementary activities to provide complete customer experience. The second trajectory means commercializing the already conducted activities as separate products for new markets. The third trajectory stands for adding unrelated activities resulting in new products for new markets thus turning the firm into a multi-industry conglomerate. The second trajectory is quite a potent option which opens opportunities for new revenues while not departing very far from the current business activities. The fourth paper takes a deep-dive into the corporate annual strategic management cycle. By adopting a design science approach during a year-long field study in a multi-subsidiary firm in the dynamic ICT industry, it develops a new process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including the indicators related to business model change. The paper also proposes a general guide for such process design. The decision-making process about which metrics to track, affects what management focuses on during the year. The rather streamlined process outlined in the paper is capable of facilitating swift responses to environmental changes in local markets by establishing new KPIs on an ongoing basis together with the business units on the ground, and thus is of key importance to strategic management of the firm.

Added 23 days ago

Sylwia Gierej (2017)

The Framework of Business Model in the Context of Industrial Internet of Things

The purpose of this article is an attempt to develop the concept of a business model dedicated to companies implementing technologies of the Industrial Internet of Things. The proposed concept has been developed to support traditional companies in the transition to the digital market. The study was based on the available literature on the impact the Industrial Internet of Things has on the economy and business models.

Added 23 days ago

Timber Haaker, Harry Bouwman, Wil Janssen, Mark de Reuver (2017)

Business model stress testing: A practical approach to test the robustness of a business model

Business models and business model innovation are increasingly gaining attention in practice as well as in academic literature. However, the robustness of business models (BM) is seldom tested vis-à-vis the fast and unpredictable changes in digital technologies, regulation and markets. The evaluation of the robustness of a BM raises several issues, such as how to describe the business model in a structured way, how to determine a relevant set of changes to test against, how to assess their impact on business model components, and how to use the results of the assessment to strengthen the business model. In this paper, we propose business model stress testing as a practical approach to evaluate the robustness of business model components. The method builds upon concepts from business model innovation and scenario planning. We illustrate our approach using a case example. Our approach enables testing individual business model components as well as the interrelation between components. The approach visualizes challenges and suggests ways to increase the robustness of BM. The stress testing approach is particularly useful in a stage of business model experimentation, i.e. if a company has to choose between alternative business models or still has to implement the business model. The underlying software tool is openly available for reuse and further development. The paper contributes to futures research literature by delivering the first method that allows to test the robustness of business models against future uncertainties.

Added 23 days ago

Jens Ohlsson, Shengnan Han, Harry Bouwman (2017)

The prioritization and categorization method (PCM) process evaluation at Ericsson: a case study

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and evaluate the prioritization and categorization method (PCM), which facilitates the active participation of process stakeholders (managers, owners, customers) in process assessments. Stakeholders evaluate processes in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and relevance against certain contextual business and industry factors. This collective evaluation serves as a foundation for the management decision-making process regarding process improvement and redesign. Design/methodology/approach – The PCM is examined based on a case study at Ericsson. In total, 55 stakeholders, representing different organizational levels and functions, assessed eight core processes. Follow-up interviews and feedback after the evaluation sessions were collected for triangulation purpose. Findings – The PCM helps Ericsson evaluate its processes within business context and industry environments. The results show that, to realize seamless end-to-end processes in the eight assessed processes, Ericsson has to make a greater effort to improve its process structures, governance and culture for fulfilling the needs of future business. Ericsson Steering Group is satisfied with the insights provided and has decided to train more stakeholders to use PCM. Research limitations/implications – This research is based on a single case within a specific organizational setting. The results may not be necessary generalizable to other business and industry settings. Organizations need to configure PCM in consideration of their own processes and business contingencies to explore and fulfil their process improvement purposes. Originality/value – This paper presents a new context-aware, easy-to-use and holistic method for business process management (BPM), the PCM. The method requires the active engagement of stakeholders, it focusses on developing dynamic BPM capabilities and fully embeds organizational contingencies and contextual factors in the decision-making regarding BPM. This paper contributes a novel method to explorative BPM.

Added 24 days ago

Jingmei Zhou, Yulin Fang, Pengfei Zhao (2017)

Understanding IT Alignment Paradox: A Three-Way Interaction of Intellectual Alignment, Social Alignment, and Environmental Dynamism

IT alignment is generally considered to be an enabler of firm performance. However, the previous literature has found that IT alignment has no or even a negative effect on firm performance, suggesting an alignment paradox. This study aims to address this paradox by focusing on the examination of how agility is enhanced or reduced. We consider the boundary conditions of environmental dynamism under which the effect of IT alignment varies. We then conduct a paired-matched survey of business and IT executives in 148 organizations to empirically examine the proposed research model. Our findings suggest that environmental dynamism has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between intellectual alignment and organizational agility, but a positive moderating effect on the relationship between social alignment and organizational agility. Furthermore, we find that in dynamic environments, intellectual alignment increases organizational agility only when it is complemented by social alignment.

Added 24 days ago

Raphael David Schilling, Jannis Beese, Mohammad Kazem Haki, Stephan Aier, Robert Winter (2017)

Revisiting the Impact of Information Systems Architecture Complexity: A Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective

Organizations constantly adapt their Information Systems (IS) architecture to reflect changes in their environment. In general, such adaptations steadily increase the complexity of their IS architecture, thereby negatively impacting IS efficiency and IS flexibility. Based on a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) perspective, we present a more differentiated analysis of the impact of IS architecture complexity. We hypothesize the relation between IS architecture complexity on the one hand, and IS efficiency and IS flexibility on the other hand to be mediated by evolutionary and revolutionary IS change. Subsequently, we test our hypotheses through a partial least squares (PLS) approach to structural equation modelling (SEM) based on survey data from 185 respondents. We find that the direct negative impact of IS architecture complexity on IS efficiency and IS flexibility is no longer statistically relevant when also considering the mediating effects of revolutionary and evolutionary IS change.

Added 24 days ago

Jeffrey Alexander Dixon, Kathryn Brohman, Yolande E. Chan (2017)

Dynamic Ambidexterity: Exploiting Exploration for Business Success in the Digital Age

In the digital age, many firms find the pace of change in their industry is increasing. New competitors emerge from previously unrelated industries and innovative digital business models can quickly disrupt well-established market dynamics. Such jolts in the competitive landscape require existing players to be continually innovating while also “keeping the lights on” to maintain existing revenue streams. This paper reviews the IS literature on ambidexterity – the ability to simultaneously pursue strategies of resource exploration and exploitation – and advances a theoretical model for embedding innovative business models into existing organizational routines. It contributes to the literature by reconciling the structural and contextual views of ambidexterity through introducing a dynamic ambidexterity framework. This approach proposes ambidexterity as a dynamic capability which requires differing mechanisms in the initiation and implementation phases of innovation.

Added 24 days ago

Steffen Wölfl, Alexander Leischnig, Björn Ivens, Daniel Hein (2017)

Analytics, Innovativeness, and Innovation Performance

Based on organizational information processing theory, this paper develops and tests a research model to deepen the understanding about the conditions under which the use of data analytics contributes to innovation performance. This paper suggests that firm innovativeness, as an organization cultural concept, should moderate the relationship between data analytics use and innovation performance. The results of a moderation analysis based on data from cross-sectional survey support this account. The findings indicate a significant inversely U-shaped effect of innovativeness on the relationship between data analytics use and innovation performance. The effect of data analytics use on innovation performance is strongest under medium levels of innovativeness but comparatively weaker when firms have a low or a high level of innovativeness. These insights contribute to the IS literature by clarifying the important role of firm cultural factors in shaping information needs and deployment of information processing capabilities.

Added 24 days ago

Fabrizio Amarilli, Mario van Vliet, Bart Van den Hooff (2017)

An Explanatory Study on the Co-evolutionary Mechanisms of Business IT Alignment

Business IT Alignment is considered an enduring topic in academic and practitioners’ literature. The interest in the subject is justified by the link, demonstrated by several studies, between alignment and corporate performances. However, alignment research has not yet been translated into practices, theoretically demonstrated in literature and applied to companies. The interpretation of alignment as a function of independent factors and the underestimation of the complex nature of alignment process are considered key barriers in alignment achievement. The present study is based on a multi-case study analysis carried out in two companies that implemented alignment processes. We conceptualise alignment as a co-evolution process and derive four mechanisms and three types of parameters and explain their role in alignment implementation. The contribution is theoretical, since we analyse and describe mechanisms and factors that govern alignment, and for the practitioners, since knowledge of these mechanisms is precondition for an effective alignment implementation.

Added 24 days ago

Chris Lockhart (2017)

The People Problem: A Primer on Architecting the Enterprise as an Enterprise Architect

Your business is solving the wrong problems. The nuclear triad of People, Process and Technology has been foundational to solving business problems for decades. Entire frameworks and methodologies have grown up around the simple concept that getting each of these three areas correct and functioning in concert will ensure smooth business operations and cross-enterprise alignment. Billions of dollars have been spent on people in the management consulting industry who have 'mastered' the art of alignment and offered definitive solutions to the biggest, wickedest business challenges out there. And yet... our businesses continue to encounter the same well-known and seemingly well-solved problems, spending massive sums to fix them. How can this be? It is said that modern business is one part innovation and one part marketing. Innovation is often mistakenly equated with technology and marketing with ‘digital’. Success in business therefore becomes a chase for digital capabilities and the latest technology to enable them. And yet… the latest technology continues to give us problems, create headaches and doesn’t always give our businesses the edge they need to compete, despite costing us huge amounts of money. How can this be? The reality, of course, is that businesses are chasing the wrong buzzwords, buying the wrong solutions, solving the wrong problems. The People Problem tackles this topic from the perspective of Enterprise Architecture. For newcomers and open-minded old-timers who practice EA, architecting the enterprise is all about asking the fundamental question ‘what business problem are we trying to solve?’ When practitioners pay close attention, they’ll recognize that business problems are infrequently solved by a new tool. That is, Technology isn’t the answer to the problem. They’ll also notice that the most efficient process in the world, made popular by the flashiest buzzwords in the industry, is insufficient to answer the fundamental question. In other words, Process is not the answer to the problem. Human beings are at the root and core of our businesses. They define the processes and operate the technology. Only by recognizing that solving business problems requires solving problems with (and caused by) people will we get close to the right solutions. The People Problem aims to help new entrants to the field of enterprise architecture (and anyone interested in solving difficult business problems) navigate in an era of particularly rapid business and technological change. Based on over 17 years of experience consulting with companies large and small, Fortune 500 to local startups, The People Problem is a collection of accumulated knowledge presented in easily digestible vignettes.

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