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Special section:
EA Books

Resources


A Profession as Enterprise Architect

Terese Besker and Rolf Olsson MSc Thesis: The present trend shows that Enterprise Architecture (EA) is an essential resource to improve the organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and agility, both in the business and the technology environment. The Enterprise Architect professionals who are working in this area are thus essential for operations in organizational transformation and development, therefore, vital to understand the ambition of this profession. There are several academic studies available concerning EA. However, there are few empirically based studies which in particularly reflect the Enterprise Architect profession. This study, examining the profession of the Enterprise Architect, sheds new light on what these professionals do within their organization on an every-day basis and how this view differs from how the profession is described in existing research. The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare how the Enterprise Architect profession is described both by academics and by empirically collected data. We perceive five topics that are essential to a comprehensive, rich picture of the profession; the role, competence, power, style of acting and main focus. The study is based on an initial literature survey and an empirically based study based on interviews with Enterprise Architects in ten large Swedish organizations. Our interviews show that the architect's work in several aspects is consistent with the literature but in other respects, an evident dissimilarity is revealed. One of the most obvious differences is the architect's mindset in terms of working in a reactive or a proactive way. Our interviews show that architects are working primarily in a reactive approach both in terms of how their roles are described but also in relation to how the EA function is set up. Although it is evidential that most of the architects’ work is based on a reactive basis, the architects claim it would be inappropriate with a purely proactive approach. Nevertheless, the establishment of the EA as a function within the interviewed organizations seems to have been well implemented, where architectural principles are determined as mandatory, while an interesting finding is that major or radical IT investments appears to overrule the architectural principles and is part of top management discretion only.
- EA Profession Advancement - Enterprise Architecture -

Ten practical ideas for organizing and managing your enterprise architecture

McKinsey: There is little agreement among companies about which management approaches are most effective; more empirical evidence is required. Oliver Bossert and Jürgen Laartz
- Enterprise Architecture -

EA Voices

The voices of the EA community.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Why we need enterprise architects now more than ever

In the era of decentralized IT, enterprise architects will find fresh opportunity to help businesses meet their most important objectives.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Innovation-based M&A

PhD thesis by Gustav Toppenberg. Resume: This research examines the technology-related integration challenges to acquisitions in digital industries and how these challenges can be managed. Historically, companies seeking to increase markets, products or customers have utilized the strategic growth process of mergers and acquisitions. Their motivation was primarily to utilize economies of scale and operational synergies to integrate acquisition targets that were similar in product, market, and customer demographics. The aim of these acquisitions was to scale the acquisition products to its own markets and customers while potentially gaining new markets and customers in the process. For companies in the digital-technology industry, the path to growth in these fast-paced markets is through the acquisition of innovation-based technologies from new and emerging companies to complement their current R&D strategies. The incumbent enterprises look for emerging technology companies as acquisition targets in order to stay ahead of the increasingly fast technology-development lifecycle. The acquisition and integration process for these types of companies present challenges to practitioners that are very different from what has been experienced in the past and will present new research opportunities for scholars researching the related domains.
- Enterprise Architecture - Innovation -

ITScore Overview for Enterprise Architecture

Gartner's ITScore maturity assessment for enterprise architecture assesses EA maturity at five levels, based on eight major dimensions of an EA practice. This research examines our five-level framework for enterprise architecture teams to use in determining EA maturity.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Enterprise Architects Need to Instill Data-Ready Thinking

The aim of today%u2019s enterprise architect should be to deliver great data %u2013 data that is clean, safe and connected %u2013 by design. Enterprise architects that enable great data demonstrate, by their actions, what it means to be truly data-first. Data-Ready Architects think about data-readiness and all of the implications of delivering it so that it truly creates a business competitive advantage. As such, they help to secure their enterprises continuing right to win.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Without enterprise architects, digital economy may descend into chaos

There are 25 billion points of data ready to overwhelm enterprise systems. An industry expert makes the case for enterprise architecture to provide structure.
- Enterprise Architecture -
9

Connecting Architecture to Business Strategy

Enterprise Architecture, when done well, is a business transformation practice. Transforming a business is not about slogans, mission statements, slick PowerPoints or in-depth strategy documents. It is about execution and actually changing business operations.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Evaluating the capabilities of Enterprise Architecture modeling tools for Visual Analysis

By: Naranjo David, Mario Snchez, Jorge Villalobos. In model analysis activities, it is critical to make early statements and diagnosis from a high level of abstraction. Currently, these tasks are difficult to perform, and they require both the involvement of experts and the elaboration of specialized artifacts. Furthermore, the complexity of the tasks increases as models become bigger and more detailed. In other contexts, it has been noticed that total / holistic / unfiltered visualizations may give insight about the models, providing analysts a starting point for exploration and general pattern discovery. In this paper, we evaluate the support that six different Enterprise Architecture (EA) modeling tools offer to EA analysis activities, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of six visualization frameworks, in order to extend the analysis of enterprise models by Visual Analysis. The evaluation is based on a set of 14 requirements which are either visualization-related or specific to EA analysis, and its results were harvested from a) observed characteristics of the diagrams of these tools, and b) visualizations from an enterprise model, generated with the aforementioned visualization frameworks. These results point to several actionable subjects and research opportunities for the field of EA Modeling and Analysis. 201D, Journal of Object Technology, Volume 14, no. 1 (April 2015), pp. 3:1-32, doi:10.5381/jot.2015.14.1.a3.
- Enterprise Architecture - EA Tools and Repositories -
8

Deborah J. Nightingale and Donna H. Rhodes (2015)
Architecting the Future Enterprise

Every enterprise evolves continuously, driven by changing needs or new opportunities. Most often this happens gradually, with small adjustments to strategy, organization, processes, or infrastructure. But sometimes enterprises need to go beyond minor fixes and transform themselves, in response to a disruptive event or dramatically changing circumstances -- a merger, for example, or a new competitor. In this book, enterprise architecting experts Deborah Nightingale and Donna Rhodes offer a framework for enterprise transformation. Successful transformation, they believe, starts with a holistic approach, taking into consideration all facets of the enterprise and its environment rather than focusing solely on one factor -- information technology, for example, or organizational structure. This is architecting the future enterprise: creating a blueprint for what the enterprise will look like after the transformation. Nightingale and Rhodes introduce the ARIES (Architecting Innovative Enterprise Strategy) framework, including a ten enterprise element model and an architecting process model, and show how to apply it, from start to finish. They explain how to create a holistic vision for the future enterprise and how to generate concepts and alternative architectures; they describe techniques for evaluating possible architectures, tools for implementation planning, and strategies for communicating with stakeholders. Nightingale and Rhodes offer real-world examples throughout, drawing on their work at MIT, with an extensive case study of enterprise transformation at a medical device manufacturer. An appendix offers two additional architecting projects. Seven Architecting Imperatives* Make architecting the initial activity in transformation. * Develop a comprehensive understanding of the enterprise landscape. * Understand what stakeholders value and how that may change in the future.* Use multiple perspectives to see the whole enterprise.* Create an architecting team suited to the transformation challenges.* Engage all levels of leadership in transformation. * Architect for the enterprise's changing world.
- Enterprise Architecture -
8
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TJ Parro and Jim May (2014)
Building Enterprise Architecture

Savvy organizations know their Enterprise Architects enable business outcomes. This formerly tactical IT "job" is today a strategic position. Enterprise architects increasingly report outside of IT to the CFO, CMO or office of the CEO. Why this quiet elevation? Enterprise Architects work at the leading edge of organizations; in the zone where business capabilities are born. This is why today's CEO's collaborate with their Enterprise Architects when evaluating short and long term strategies. Enterprise Architects continuously blend business and technical capabilities to meet the ongoing demand for new capabilities. If it sounds like ninja smoke.... It is... and smart organizations already know it works. Making Enterprise Architecture work involves mutual understanding and trust between EA's and CEO's. This is the first in a planned series of books designed to help maximize investments in Enterprise Architecture. The topics are based on executive's questions and issues addressed in the author's experience teaching enterprise architecture to executives and in delivering EA solutions to large organizations. This first volume begins with basic connecting points between executive and architect and discusses effective techniques for moving architecture to the enterprise level in the organization. The centerpiece in this volume is the ERAM (Enterprise Resource Allocation Management) concept. This volume isn't intended to answer every possible question on Enterprise Architecture. It is intended to start the dialogue in a productive way...
- Enterprise Architecture -
6
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Gerben Wierda (2015)
Chess and the Art of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprise Architecture is the discipline of managing the complexities of the Business-IT landscape. It has been around since the 1980's, when for the first time computers were connected in networks, and the already serious (and unsolved) problem of the complexity of computer programs for relatively simple business needs turned into the huge problem of large networks of them in complex business landscapes. In spite of many 'best practices' and 'frameworks' that have been introduced, Enterprise Architecture is not a great success. After thirty years, we still have the same problems. Chaos is still everywhere. Projects still fail far too often. In this book, (hidden) assumptions behind the existing approaches to enterprise architecture are challenged, and a more realistic perspective that helps us battle the complexities and unpredictabilities of today's Business-IT landscapes is described. Practical suggestions about enterprise architecture governance and products, based on real-world experience with the described approach, complete the book. From general management to IT professionals, everyone who is confronted with the problem of managing Business-IT landscapes can profit from the insights this book offers. No specialist prior knowledge is required. Gerben Wierda is author of Mastering ArchiMate, and was, amongst other things, Lead Architect of the Judiciary in The Netherlands, Lead Architect of APG Asset Management, and is now Team Coordinator Architecture and Design at APG.
- Enterprise Architecture -
6
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Hakan Edvinsson and Lottie Aderinne (2013)
Enterprise Architecture Made Simple: Using the Ready, Set, Go Approach to Achieving Information Centricity

Learn how to institute and implement enterprise architecture in your organization. You can make a quick start and establish a baseline for your enterprise architecture within ten weeks, then grow and stabilize the architecture over time using the proven Ready, Set, Go Approach. The authors have combined more than three decades of experience in enterprise architecture, business development, and business modeling. They have introduced enterprise architecture to numerous different sectors and areas of operations. Both have been active as consultants and educators; they have also been examiners for a training course that certifies enterprise architects. In these roles, they have established the foundations of the enterprise architecture concept for numerous individuals and businesses. HÃ¥kan Edvinsson is currently the CTO and partner of Informed Decisions and Lottie Aderinne is the owner and partner of Vilante Consulting. Both companies provide consulting services for EA and change management projects.
- Enterprise Architecture -
8
0

James V. Luisi (2014)
Pragmatic Enterprise Architecture: Strategies to Transform Information Systems in the Era of Big Data

Pragmatic Enterprise Architecture is a practical hands-on instruction manual for enterprise architects. This book prepares you to better engage IT, management, and business users by equipping you with the tools and knowledge you need to address the most common enterprise architecture challenges. You will come away with a pragmatic understanding of and approach to enterprise architecture and actionable ideas to transform your enterprise. Experienced enterprise architect James V. Luisi generously shares life cycle architectures, transaction path analysis frameworks, and more so you can save time, energy, and resources on your next big project. As an enterprise architect, you must have relatable frameworks and excellent communication skills to do your job. You must actively engage and support a large enterprise involving a hundred architectural disciplines with a modest number of subject matter experts across business, information systems, control systems, and operations architecture. They must achieve their mission using the influence of ideas and business benefits expressed in simple terms so that any audience can understand what to do and why. Pragmatic Enterprise Architecture gives you the tools to accomplish your goals in less time with fewer resources. It expand your Enterprise Architecture skills so you can do more in less time with less money with the priceless tips presented. It understand the cost of creating new Enterprise Architecture disciplines and contrast those costs to letting them go unmanaged. It includes 10 life cycle architectures so that you can properly assess the ROI of performing activities such as outsourcing, insourcing, restructuring, mergers and acquisitions, and more. It complete appendix of eight transaction path analysis frameworks provide DBA guidelines for proper physical database design.
- Enterprise Architecture -
2
0

Frederik Ahlemann, Eric Stettiner, Marcus Messerschmidt and Christine Legner (eds) (2012)
Strategic Enterprise Architecture Management: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Developments (Management for Professionals)

The discipline of Enterprise Architecture Management (EAM) deals with the alignment of business and information systems architectures. While EAM has long been regarded as a discipline for IT managers this book takes a different stance: It explains how top executives can use EAM for leveraging their strategic planning and controlling processes and how EAM can contribute to sustainable competitive advantage. Based on the analysis of best practices from eight leading European companies from various industries the book presents crucial elements of successful EAM. It outlines what executives need to do in terms of governance, processes, methodologies and culture in order to bring their management to the next level. Beyond this, the book points how EAM might develop in the next decade allowing today’s managers to prepare for the future of architecture management.
- Enterprise Architecture -
7
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From problems to critical success factors of enterprise architecture adoption

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are one of the key vehicles in enabling the reform of public administration. Public organizations have introduced enterprise architecture (EA) methods to manage their ICT assets and to improve the quality, efficiency and interoperability of public services. In Finland, the Act on Information Management Governance in Public Administration, making the use of EA mandatory for the central and local government institutions, was enacted in late 2011. For the present, however, concrete results from EA efforts are moderate. Most of the public organizations are still struggling with the adoption of this new policy. Not many studies of the problems, or the critical success factors (CSF) of EA adoption process can be found, even though this understanding is essential in enabling any later stages of the EA life cycle. The goal of our research was first, to identify the problems that organizations encounter while adopting EA and then, by analyzing these problems, to develop a model of CSFs of EA introduction for public organizations. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected over the span of several years, using different techniques in a triangulation setting. Grounded theory (GT) was used as an approach for the data collection and analysis. GT allowed us to inductively develop an empirically grounded theoretical model about this substantive area that lacks previous studies. The result, the proposed “3D” model characterizes the critical problems in relation to the classes of CSFs. This raises the argument that the CSFs of EA adoption must be of dynamic nature. The detailed content of the CSF are specific to an organizational environment. They are also interrelated, and a strong CSF can be exploited to reinforce the weaker ones. The research contributes to the theoretical bodies of knowledge of EA and CSFs of organizational change invoked by ICT developments. It also suggests how the current capabilities of an organization can be turned into drivers of successful EA adoption. Therefore, the results are of interest to researchers, as well as practitioners. PhD disseration.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Relating business modelling and enterprise architecture

Lucas Onno Meertens PhD disseration. This thesis proposes a methodology for creating business models, evaluating them, and relating them to enterprise architecture. The methodology consists of several steps, leading from an organization’s current situation to a target situation, via business models and enterprise architecture. Currently, increasing amounts of businesses rely on IT systems to do their business. However, success rates of IT implementations projects are low. Difficulties exist in aligning existing IT systems with business objectives. Individually, business modelling or enterprise architecture does not seem to solve the problem completely. However, each of their weaknesses seems to be countered by the strengths of the other. Our proposed methodology supports bringing an organization from its current situation to a target situation. The developed process steps help to formalize business modelling, and at the same time extend enterprise architecture to be more business focussed and easier to use. This would support our hypothesis that combining enterprise architecture and business modelling leads to better enterprise architecture and business models, and therefore, more successful business-IT innovations.
- Enterprise Architecture -

Jason Bloomberg (2013)
The Agile Architecture Revolution: How Cloud Computing, REST-based SOA, and Mobile Computing are Changing Enterprise IT

A sneak peek at up–and–coming trends in IT, a multidimensional vision for achieving business agility through agile architectures The Agile Architecture Revolution places IT trends into the context of Enterprise Architecture, reinventing Enterprise Architecture to support continuous business transformation. It focuses on the challenges of large organizations, while placing such organizations into the broader business ecosystem that includes small and midsize organizations as well as startups. Organizes the important trends that are facing technology in businesses and public sector organizations today and over the next several years Presents the five broad organizing principles called Supertrends: location independence, global cubicle, democratization of technology, deep interoperability, and complex systems engineering Provides a new perspective on service–oriented architecture in conjunction with architectural approaches to cloud computing and mobile technologies that explain how organizations can achieve better business visibility through IT and enterprise architecture Laying out a multidimensional vision for achieving agile architectures, this book discusses the crisis points that promise sudden, transformative change, unraveling how organizations spending on IT will continue to undergo radical change over the next ten years.
- Enterprise Architecture - Service-Oriented Architecture - Cloud Computing -
5
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P A Woodworth (2013)
A Reference Architecture for Enterprise Architecture: According to EA3, Documented in EA3

This book endeavours to help further lift the discipline of EA by providing a reference architecture for an EA function and taking an EA approach to its documentation and analysis to help demonstrate, explain and rationalize EA and the EA function. In doing so outlining the key drivers and components of an EA function, including the influences on and objectives of EA, and the business and technology processes and resources required and used to address these. Keeping on point and avoiding being pushed into related but non-EA activities; buying time to do things properly while still being responsive and agile to changes in enterprise drivers; fitting into the organisation's governance structure; building a capability not just delivering a series of non-repeatable, point-sensitive EA services are just some of the many challenges facing Enterprise Architects today. While there are a number of useful and informative EA frameworks and books available guiding organisations on what EA should deliver, organisations and individuals are left without the one thing they espouse for the enterprise at large, a target architecture for the EA function that can be used to best align it to their enterprise and allow them to plan and oversee its formation and change effectively. This leaves many decisions to be made in the absence of sound, communicable, measurable and transparent views as to why and what to strive for in doing EA. As a reference architecture typically describes a complete target architecture, and a complete architecture can take a long time to develop and fine tune, more than can be expected within a single release, project or time frame that initial outcomes are required by EA stakeholders and customers, the book takes a look at the different capabilities or themes that might be focused on to allow for the different needs and expectations enterprises have from EA. To ensure the reference architecture incorporates best practices in EA, it is built on the concepts and principles of EA outlined in Dr Scott Bernard's book, An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture, EA3, and his EA training program and certification courses. Both of which in turn build on the EA experiences and practices of EA practitioners over near to three decades.
- Enterprise Architecture -
6
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Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge (EABOK)

Enterprise Architecture practice is growing quickly, accelerating in pace and adoption throughout the world but lacks an authoritative, unbiased place to learn about the wide array of experiences, methods and practices, and experiences. The EA Body of Knowledge is a unique endeavor created by people who believe, first and foremost, that the best way to gather the knowledge about Enterprise Architecture is to ask practitioners and researchers to simply share what they know, what they do, and how well it works. This is practical knowledge. The EABOK is home to terms and concepts, standards and practices, methods and patterns, and perspectives on what works... and what fails to work. We are striving first for breadth and usefulness. Consistency will evolve with maturity. The EABOK Consortium has senior leaders in the Enterprise Architecture community, including representatives from industry, government, and professional associations. But we are not looking only to ourselves for knowledge. On the contrary! While we have seeded the EABOK, we believe it will not be complete, actionable, and balanced, until we have input and insight from practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders. We aspire to have the EABOK become an ever-evolving map to insightful and useful information about enterprise architecture. Whether you are an experienced practitioner, an aspiring architect, or just someone interesting in this fascinating field, we welcome you to join our consortium hosted by MITRE and become a part of the Enterprise Architecture Body of Knowledge.
- Enterprise Architecture - Bodies of Knowledge (BoK) -

The Evolving Nature of the EA Profession

The theme for this issue of Architecture and Governance Magazine is The Evolving Nature of the EA Profession. As a relatively young discipline, enterprise architecture has come a long way. Interest levels continue to be high, as demonstrated by the readership and the enthusiastic support of our author community. But to be fair, though, universal adoption of EA isn%u2019t as widespread as it should be given its potential. As a result, we see the EA practitioner community pursuing two strategies: One is to double down on education and standards, and to codify EA practices into a consistent and repeatable body of knowledge. The second is to innovate and be progressive by evolving the EA practice into high-value opportunities using new approaches. This editorial board believes that these two ideas are not mutually exclusive and, in fact, are both essential to the success of the profession. In this issue, our contributing authors explore both ideas.
- Enterprise Architecture -

John Gøtze and Anders Jensen-Waud (2013)
Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking in Architecting Enterprises

Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking is a valuable way of thinking about the viable enterprise and how to architect it. Edited by John Gøtze and Anders Jensen-Waud, the book features contributions from 32 international experts in the fields of systems thinking and enterprise architecture. Contributors: Adrian Campell, Alex Conn, Dennis Sherwood, Don deGuerre, Erik Perjons, Gene Bellinger, Harold Bud Lawson, Ilia Bider, Jack Ring, James Lapalme, James Martin, Jan Dietz, Jan Hoogervorst, Janne J. Korhonen, John Morecroft, Leo Laverdure, Linda Clod Præstholm, Mesbah Khan, Mikkel Stokbro Holst, Namkyu Park, Olov Östberg, Olusola O. Oduntan, Patrick Hoverstadt, Per Johannisson, Per-Arne Persson, Peter Sjølin, Rasmus Fischer Frost, Sally Bean, Tom Graves, and Tue Westmark Steensen.
- Enterprise Architecture - Systems Thinking -
9
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Stefan Bente, Uwe Bombosch, Shailendra Langade (2012)
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture: Enriching EA with Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 Practices

Ever-changing business needs have prompted large companies to rethink their enterprise IT. Today, businesses must allow interaction with their customers, partners, and employees at more touch points and at a depth never thought previously. At the same time, rapid advances in information technologies, like business digitization, cloud computing, and Web 2.0, demand fundamental changes in the enterprises' management practices. These changes have a drastic effect not only on IT and business, but also on policies, processes, and people. Many companies therefore embark on enterprise-wide transformation initiatives. The role of Enterprise Architecture (EA) is to architect and supervise this transformational journey. Unfortunately, todays EA is often a ponderous and detached exercise, with most of the EA initiatives failing to create visible impact. The enterprises need an EA that is agile and responsive to business dynamics. Collaborative Enterprise Architecture provides the innovative solutions todays enterprises require, informed by real-world experiences and experts' insights. This book, in its first part, provides a systematic compendium of the current best practices in EA, analyzes current ways of doing EA, and identifies its constraints and shortcomings. In the second part, it leaves the beaten tracks of EA by introducing Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 concepts to the traditional EA methods. This blended approach to EA focuses on practical aspects, with recommendations derived from real-world experiences. A truly thought provoking and pragmatic guide to manage EA, Collaborative Enterprise Architecture effectively merges the long-term oriented top-down approach with pragmatic bottom-up thinking, and that way offers real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide change. This title covers the latest emerging technologies affecting business practice, including digitization, cloud computing, agile software development, and Web 2.0. It focuses on the practical implementation of EAM rather than theory, with recommendations based on real-world case studies. It addresses changing business demands and practices, including Enterprise 2.0 , open source, global sourcing, and more. It takes an innovative approach to EAM, merging standard top-down and pragmatic, bottom-up strategies, offering real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide changes.
- Enterprise Architecture -
8
0

The EA Pad

One-Stop Shop for Enterprise Architects
- Enterprise Architecture -

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