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Danny Greefhorst, Erik Proper (2011)
Architecture Principles: The Cornerstones of Enterprise Architecture

Enterprises, from small to large, evolve continuously. As a result, their structures are transformed and extended continuously. Without some means of control, such changes are bound to lead to an overly complex, uncoordinated and heterogeneous environment that is hard to manage and hard to adapt to future changes. Enterprise architecture principles provide a means to direct transformations of enterprises. As a consequence, architecture principles should be seen as the cornerstones of any architecture. In this book, Greefhorst and Proper focus on the role of architecture principles. They provide both a theoretical and a practical perspective on architecture principles. The theoretical perspective involves a brief survey of the general concept of principle as well as an analysis of different flavors of principles. Architecture principles are regarded as a specific class of normative principles that direct the design of an enterprise, from the definition of its business to its supporting IT. The practical perspective on architecture principles is concerned with an approach to the formulation of architecture principles, as well as their actual use in organizations. To illustrate their use in practice, several real-life cases are discussed, an application of architecture principles in TOGAF is included, and a catalogue of example architecture principles is provided. With this broad coverage, the authors target students and researchers specializing in enterprise architecture or business information systems, as well as practitioners who want to understand the foundations underlying their practical daily work.
- Enterprise Architecture - Principles -
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The Impact of Enterprise Architecture Principles on the Management of IT Investments

Mats-Ake Hugoson, Thanos Magoulas, Kalevi Pessi. EJISE - Volume 14 Issue 1, ECIME 2010 Special Issue / Jan 2011. The strategic role of IT and its significance throughout the organization increases complexity, variety, and the need of change. Hence IT management must deal with uncertainties derived from different, conflicting and ever changing demands. In this sense Enterprise Architecture is playing an increasingly important role in improving IT management practice. If contemporary organizations do not succeed in managing architectural issues, there is a clear risk that considerable resources will be invested without achieving desirable effects. This paper investigates how Enterprise Architecture Principles impact on the management of IT%u2011investments in the context of large organizations. The purpose of the paper is to provide a deeper insight of the relationship between Enterprise Architecture and management of IT Investments throughout the elucidation of two significant types of principles: Delineation (differentiation) principles and Interoperability (integration) principles. Our conclusion is that the choice of architectural principles has an impact both on alignment between information systems and business demands and on the management of IT investments. This impact concerns at least four aspects: (1) The responsibility for IT investments (2) Time to value (3) Long term alignment, (4) Coordination of investments in information systems with changes in business processes.
- Enterprise Architecture - Principles -

Strategy Execution and the Balanced Scorecard

A new book by Kaplan and David P. Norton aims to make strategy a continual process. The Execution Premium: Linking Strategy to Operations for Competitive Advantage shows managers how to weave organizational principles into a more effective management system that respects the differences between strategy and operations yet integrates them in a powerful way. Kaplan and Norton introduced the Balanced Scorecard, a performance measurement system, in 1992. The Execution Premium is their fifth book as coauthors.
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EA Business Principles

EA Business Principles
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EA Data Principles

EA Data Principles
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GAO

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is an agency that works for Congress and the American people. Congress asks GAO to study the programs and expenditures of the federal government. GAO, commonly called the investigative arm of Congress or the congressional watchdog, is independent and nonpartisan. It studies how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars. GAO advises Congress and the heads of executive agencies (such as Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, Department of Defense, DOD, and Health and Human Services, HHS) about ways to make government more effective and responsive. GAO evaluates federal programs, audits federal expenditures, and issues legal opinions. When GAO reports its findings to Congress, it recommends actions. Its work leads to laws and acts that improve government operations, and save billions of dollars.
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